I was attending a short course taught by Susanne May on clinical trials (very good, by the way) and she mentioned an interesting publication. It talks about the “random high” bias.
Fleming TR. Clinical trials: discerning hype from substance. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Sep 21;153(6):400-6. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-153-6-201009210-00008.